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Laboratory of Combustion Engines Theory

Laboratory of Combustion Engines Theory

The present work will be devoted to the study of how the technical problems related to the design of combustion engines could be solved based on the fundamental laws of thermodynamics. Practical examples of how to use thermodynamics for describing physical phenomena and mathematical simulations of heat exchange processes in the combustion engines will be presented. All the well-known solutions used in the vehicles engineering and related to the fundamental theory of combustion engines are presented in the current work. These solutions are piston compressors (used as an auxiliary equipment or external compressors in turbocharger assistance system), automobile air conditioning systems and internal combustion engines.
Special attention will be paid to the theory, fundamental processes analysis (based on empirical tests results) and in the case of internal combustion engines – to the influence of harmful substances contained in the exhaust gas on the environment.


Preface 5

1. PiSTon ComPrESSor 7

1.1. Introduction 7

1.2. Compressors types 7

1.3. Design solutions 8

1.4. Operating principle of piston type compressor 9

1.5. Theoretical backgrounds 10

1.5.1. The theoretical compressor without harmful volume 10

1.5.2. The theoretical compressor with harmful volume 11

1.5.3. Comparison of the theoretical compressor without harmful volume and the theoretical compressor with harmful volume 13

1.5.4. Boundary compression ratio 13

1.6. Comparison of the compressors working cycles 14

1.7. Handling compressor indicator diagram 15

1.8. Calculation of the theoretical compressor without harmful volume 19

1.9. Calculation of the theoretical compressor with harmful volume 20

1.10. Values for the comparison 21

1.11. The purpose of the laboratory work 21

1.12. An experimental unit 22

1.13. Necessary data for the preparing the laboratory work report 23

1.14. Summarizing calculations results 24

1.15. Report of the laboratory work 24

2. CAr Air CondiTionEr SySTEm 25

2.1. Introduction 25

2.2. The theory – car conditioning principle 25

2.3. Theory of refrigerants 27

2.4. Air conditioning system of the car 29

2.5. A/C System major components 30

2.6. The laboratory test setup 37

2.7. Laboratory exercise 39

3. indiCATor diAgrAm 43

3.1. Introduction 43

3.2. Calculations of engine operating parameters based on the indicator diagram 45

3.3. The efficiency and energy balance of the combustion engine 48

3.4. Theoretical cycles of four-stroke combustion engines 51

3.5. Matching the theoretical cycle to the actual closed indicator diagram of the engine 57

3.6. The aim of the laboratory exercise 59

3.7. Tasks 59

3.8. Laboratory report 60

4. ChArACTEriSTiCS of inTErnAL CombuSTion EnginE 6 1

4.1. Speed characteristics of the internal combustion engine 61

4.1.1. The definition of spark ignition engine speed characteristic 61

4.1.2. Engine test bench and examination procedurę 64

4.1.3. The main equations used for engine operation parameters calculations 66

4.1.4. Laboratory report content 68

4.2. Load characteristic of the internal combustion engine 69

4.2.1. Parameters of the load characteristic 69

4.2.2. Main formulas used in the measurement results processing 73

4.2.3. A consequence of the exercise implementation 73

4.2.4. The content of the report 75

5. mEASurEmEnTS of PoLLuTAnT EmiSSionS from CombuSTion EnginES 76

5.1. Harmful substances formation in the exhaust gas of internal combustion engines 76

5.2. Effect of exhaust gases harmful substances emission on the environment 79

5.3. Hazards caused by toxic compounds emitted by combustion engines – selected toxic components in exhaust gases 80

5.4. Methods used for measurement of the concentration of toxic constituents in the exhaust gas 85

5.5. Methods used for measurement of solid particles 87

5.6. Study on specific emission of exhaust gas toxic components 89

5.6.1. Emission norms for toxic substances obligated for non-road vehicles 89

5.6.2. Processing of the measurement results 92